Study: a bottle of wine a week is as bad as smoking 10 cigarettes

Do you drink a glass of wine a few times a week? New research shows that drinking a bottle of wine a week is the same as smoking 5 to 10 cigarettes when it comes to raising the risk of getting cancer.

For women, drinking one bottle of wine each week increased the absolute lifetime risk of cancer to the same level as smoking 10 cigarettes a week, driven largely by a higher risk of breast cancer. For men, drinking a bottle of wine each week increased the absolute lifetime risk of cancer equal to smoking 5 cigarettes.

The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services lists the consumption of alcohol as a known human carcinogen. It is linked to various cancers including breast, colon, esophageal, and liver cancer. But often times, the risks of alcohol consumption are less obvious and come as a surprise to the public.

“These findings can help communicate that moderate levels of drinking are an important public health risk,” concluded lead author of the study Theresa Hydes, PhD, a hepatology clinical fellow at the University Hospital Southampton, England.


Do you have a strong, often uncontrollable, desire to drink? Or feel an urge to drink when feeling stressed and anxious? Are you feeling more irritable/ tired while becoming intoxicated more frequently? If so, you may have a drinking problem. Dr. Ardyce Yik has seen her share of patients struggling with alcoholism- teenagers, professionals, fathers, mothers… Yes, even mothers! Healthcare professionals and addiction counsellors are seeing an increase in mothers seeking help for alcohol problems. This may be due to the current mommy drinking culture, which is vehemently reinforced by social media and advertising. Seek a trusted doctor if you suspect you have a drinking problem.

Click here to read more about the detrimental effects of alcohol consumption (i.e. How much alcohol is too much?).


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2019’s “Dirty Dozen”: What are the most pesticide-laden foods?

top-view-1248955_1920The 2019 Dirty Dozen™ List is out! Here is the list of foods that contain the most pesticide residues:

  1. Strawberries
  2. Spinach
  3. Kale
  4. Nectarines
  5. Apples
  6. Grapes
  7. Peaches
  8. Cherries
  9. Pears
  10. Tomatoes
  11. Celery
  12. Potatoes

The list is released each year by the Environmental Working Group (EWG), a nonprofit consumer advocacy organization which uses more than 40,000 produce samples tested by the Food and Drug Administration and the U.S. Department of Agriculture.


Pesticide exposure has been linked to childhood cancer, brain disorders such as ADHD/ autism/ dyslexia, and infertility. The pesticide industry and chemical agriculture insist that pesticides on produce are nothing to worry about, but doctors and scientists strongly disagree.

Dr. Philippe Grandjean, adjunct professor of environmental health at Harvard and lead author of a 2014 study linking synthetic chemicals and brain disorders, is concerned because even ordinary (undiagnosed) children are often affected. “The greatest concern is the large numbers of children who are affected by toxic damage to brain development in the absence of a formal diagnosis… They suffer reduced attention span, delayed development, and poor school performance. Industrial chemicals are now emerging as likely causes.”


Here are some practical tips to help you make smart choices for you and your family:

  1. childappleFor produce heavily laden with pesticide residues (see the Dirty Dozen™ list above), buy organic. Reduce pesticide exposure, especially in children and if you are trying to conceive. “Even low levels of pesticide exposure can be harmful to infants, babies and young children, so when possible, parents and caregivers should take steps to lower children’s exposures to pesticides while still feeding them diets rich in healthy fruits and vegetables,” said Dr. Philip Landrigan of the Mt. Sinai School of Medicine.
  2. If buying fully organic is not in your budget, familiarize yourself with the Clean 15™ list. Foods on this list are least likely to contain pesticide residues, so you can buy conventional produce without worrying about excessive pesticide exposure. The Clean 15™: avocado, corn, pineapple, frozen sweet peas, onion, papaya, eggplant, asparagus, kiwi, cabbage, cauliflower, cantaloupe, broccoli, mushrooms, honeydew melon.
  3. Plain water will not wash away pesticide residues on produce. Try soaking fruits and vegetables in a plain white vinegar solution (4 parts water + 1 part vinegar) for 15 to 30 minutes. You may scrub produce with skin (e.g. apples) with a scrubby brush after they are done soaking. Rinse thoroughly before consuming. A salt water soak (1 tsp salt + 2 to 3 cups of water) can also be used to reduce chemical residues on produce. But note that no washing method is 100% effective for removing all pesticide residues.

strawberries-1330459_1920Fruits and vegetables are an important part of our diet. They contain numerous vitamins, minerals and plant chemicals that keep us healthy. A diet high in fruits and vegetables can help protect against cancer, diabetes, heart disease and premature death. But be aware of produce which are heavily contaminated with pesticides. Start making smart consumer choices today.



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How to improve your (picky) child’s eating habits

happy girlsIs your child a fussy eater? Does your child only want to eat one type of food (like bread? Or rice?)? Or does s/he refuse to eat a particular type of food due to its texture, appearance or smell? While some children don’t make a fuss about eating, others have very strong preferences when it comes to food. What should parents do when those preferences aren’t healthy or balanced?

Here are some practical tips on how to improve your child’s eating behaviour:

  1. Set specific times for meal times and try to have meals together as a family. Children are more willing to try a particular food when they see others eating it.
  2. Avoid making a separate meal for your children. If they know you will make a specially prepared meal for them if they are fussy, that is what they will demand from you. Dr. Ardyce Yik finds this is quite common in Hong Kong, where children often eat dinner at an earlier time than parents.
  3. Try to avoid big meal-size snacks between meals. If children eat too much for snacks or “graze”/ snack throughout the day, they won’t be hungry at mealtimes.  
  4. Feed them healthy snacks. Nutritious snacks are a great way to provide added nutrients to growing bodies and to replenish energy. Remove all junk food from your home, or at the very least, don’t eat junk food in front of your children. Children usually follow your actions, not your words.
  5. Try a variety of healthy foods and snacks with them and see what they prefer. By adding healthful, whole foods into your diet, you are showing them what they should be eating. By letting them choose among healthy options, you are fostering independence and teaching them responsibility.  
  6. Get your children involved and let them participate in the process of preparing meals. It can be shopping for foods at the supermarket or cooking a meal together. Through these opportunities, children learn about healthful food choices, how to read food labels and how to properly prepare a meal, all of which foster lifelong skills for better health.  For younger children, they can help count the eggs or wash the vegetables. When they are involved in the meal preparation process, they are more willing to try new foods and eat what they helped to prepare. 
  7. For those who have a strong preference for texture or appearance, be creative in how you cook and present certain foods. For example, if your child likes crunchy or crispy foods, try making yam/ sweet potato/ lotus root chips (slice the vegetable, drizzle with olive oil and bake until crisp). If your child doesn’t like sauces, skip the sauce altogether. If your child only eats foods of a certain colour, slowly introduce other foods by feeding foods of that particular colour mixed with small amounts of other minced or diced foods.

Happy meal planning!


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How to boost fertility and IVF success

grayscale photo of baby feet with father and mother hands in heart signs

Planning for a successful pregnancy? Many couples are encouraged, after a few months of trying without success, to consider assisted reproductive technology (ART) such as IUI or IVF. Though these fertility procedures help bring the sperm and egg (closer) together, they are rather costly and often stressful- not to mention not always successful. In fact, the success rate for IVF procedures is only 20% to 40% for those in their thirties.

Various factors affect your ability to conceive and carry a healthy baby to term. A successful embryo transfer doesn’t necessarily translate into a successful pregnancy. Whether you are trying to conceive naturally or attempting the IVF route, the following are important things to consider:

  1. Are you experiencing miscarriages? There may be underlying conditions or reasons  affecting your ability to carry a baby to term. For example, people with a MTHFR gene defect may be prone to recurrent miscarriages. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR for short) is an enzyme that is responsible for the conversion of folic acid to its active form folate.  If you have a MTHFR gene mutation, your body cannot break down folic acid into folate, and studies show that people with a MTHFR gene mutation are more susceptible to recurrent miscarriages, pre-eclampsia and a baby born with spina bifida. Keep in mind that while recurrent miscarriages are often multi-factorial, Dr. Yik usually tests her patients for MTHFR mutation when frequent pregnancy loss is unexplained so that proper treatment can be given to those with a MTHFR gene defect. Other reasons for recurrent miscarriages include nutrient deficiencies, poor egg quality, immune responses and thyroid hormone imbalances.
  2. Dr. Yik plays a supportive role in helping each of her patients improve egg quality and uterine lining, promote pelvic circulation and optimise overall health. She has helped women doing IVF successfully conceive (these women are often those who have tried IVF on its own without success). There have even been cases where patients, after adopting a certain dietary and lifestyle regimen, fall pregnant before their scheduled IVF procedure. What about age, you ask? Yes, it’s true that fertility decreases as you age. But did you know that your biological age may be different from your chronological age? The good news is, you can lower your biological age through lifestyle (and naturopathic medicine under the direction of a trained practitioner). There are ways to prevent aging and in some cases, even reverse it.
  3. What you consume has a direct impact on your fertility! According to a study carried out by the Harvard School of Public Health, women who ate the highest amounts of monounsaturated fat had triple the chance of IVF success. These women were 3.4 times more likely to have a child after IVF. In contrast, women who ate mostly saturated fat, found in butter and red meat, produced fewer good quality eggs for use in fertility treatment.  Another study looked at 4000 Danish women and found that women who drink five or more cups of coffee a day actually halve their chance of getting pregnant via IVF. Furthermore, a 2018 study from Human Reproduction concluded that women who consumed a Mediterranean diet had significantly higher success rates of IVF compared to other women. These studies confirm that what we eat can either boost our fertility or curb it. Dr. Yik uses dietary guidelines, medicinal herbs and nutraceuticals to help the body be in optimal state to improve the chances of a successful pregnancy. Many women in Hong Kong may resort to traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) to boost fertility, using herbs that traditional Chinese doctors prescribe. Some of Dr. Yik’s patients who’ve tried TCM first before seeing Dr. Yik find that they get pregnant sooner on her fertility protocol. She uses a more holistic approach, taking into consideration your age, egg quality, uterine/ ovarian/ reproductive health, hormones, cervical health and general well being. For those who use TCM concurrently, Dr. Yik advises patients to make sure they know the source of the TCM herbs- often they are sourced from China and may contain harmful heavy metals or contaminants.
  4. Could it be the toxins? A detox (for your body, for your liver) can be a great way to remove toxins which have accumulated in your body all these years. A study done in Hong Kong on 150 infertile couples undergoing in-vitro fertilization (IVF) versus 20 fertile couples found that the infertile couples had significantly higher blood mercury then the fertile group. Over 1/3 of infertile men had abnormally high mercury and about 1/4 of the infertile females had high mercury levels. High levels of PCBs have also been linked to IVF failure. A detox and liver cleanse (scheduled 3 to 6 months prior to conception) can help to remove toxins, rebalance hormones and improve reproductive health.

Remember, numerous factors affect your ability to conceive and carry a healthy baby to term. Find a fertility doctor who looks beyond IUI or IVF to help your body prepare for and boost your chances of an optimal pregnancy.


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How to support your immune system to prevent the flu

kid2In an effort to curb seasonal influenza, the Hong Kong government has announced that all kindergartens and childcare centres will close starting tomorrow, one week ahead of the Chinese New Year holiday.

Besides getting the flu vaccine, what else can we do to protect our health?

Your immune system protects you from infectious bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites that cause disease and even death. “The strength of your immune system is what determines who gets sick and who doesn’t,” explains Woodson Merrell, MD, director of integrative medicine at Beth Israel Medical Center in New York City. We know that adequate sleep, regular exercise, limiting alcohol consumption and not smoking are essential to good health, but what more can we do to improve our immune system?

1) Elderberry extract (Sambucus nigra) enhances the immune system and studies show that people taking elderberry recover from the flu faster than those who don’t. In one randomised study of 60 adults with flu-like symptoms, those who took 15 mL of the elderberry syrup Sambucol® four times a day saw symptoms clear up on average four days earlier than those who took a placebo (the placebo group also took more painkillers and nasal sprays). Researchers note that it is the extract of elderberry that is effective, not the tea, jam or jelly. Check with a qualified practitioner or doctor for appropriate dosages.

2) Vitamin D supports the immune system. Researchers in Japan have found that besides getting the annual flu shot, vitamin D is also a potent flu-fighter. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial comparing vitamin D3 supplements (1200 IU/day) with placebo in school-aged children, researchers found that the children receiving the sunshine vitamin had a 42% reduction in getting influenza A compared to those not receiving it. The study also found that the group not getting the vitamin D had six times more asthma attacks. “Vitamin D helps your body produce a protein called cathelicidin that fights bacteria and viruses,” says Carlos Camargo, M.D., an associate professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School. In Dr. Yik’s practice, she finds that many adults and children in Hong Kong are deficient in vitamin D, regardless of how much sunshine they get. Before you start taking vitamin D supplements though, get your level checked so you can supplement at the correct dosage. Too much vitamin D puts you at a higher risk for kidney stones.


3) Up to 80% of our immune system lies in our gut, so it makes sense to boost immunity through the gut! Studies show that probiotic supplementation increases T-cell count, which makes you less vulnerable to infections. In a study involving 3- to 5-year-olds, daily probiotic supplementation for 6 months reduced fever, rhinorrhea, cough and antibiotic prescription incidence, as well as the number of missed school days attributable to illness. Different strains of probiotics treat different conditions, so it’s important to find the right type. A supplement with various probiotic strains including a high(er) amount of Lactobacillus rhamnosus is beneficial for boosting immunity.

4) Eat well balanced, wholesome meals- make sure you’re eating adequate protein, good fats and a variety of vegetables and fruits. Include immune-boosting foods such as garlic, onions, ginger, shiitake/ maitake/ reishi mushrooms, green vegetables and berries in your diet. Vitamin C and zinc play important roles in immune defence, so remember to eat foods high in those nutrients.

5) Certain essential oils such as clove and eucalyptus have immune-enhancing properties. Some choose to diffuse it while others use direct or indirect inhalation. For topical use, always read the labels carefully and seek a certified aromatherapist if unsure.

Always remember to wash your hands regularly with soap and avoid touching your face/ nose/ mouth. If you are sick, seek medical attention.


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Who’s breathing the most polluted air in Hong Kong?

According to the air quality data released by the Environmental Protection Department today, people in Tuen Mun, Yuen Long and Tung Chung districts were breathing the unhealthiest air in 2018.

Tuen Mun was the most polluted district for the fifth consecutive year, followed by Yuen Long in second place and Tung Chung in third.

Though overall air quality improved in 2018, hazardous ozone levels were at a record high in Hong Kong, according to the Environmental Protection Department. Ozone is the primary component of smog, created by a chemical reaction that occurs when sunlight interacts with particulates (soot) from motor vehicle exhaust, gasoline vapors, and dust from power plants. Ozone irritates the lung airways, exacerbating asthma and other lung ailments. Fine particles (PM10, PM2.5), widely considered the most dangerous of air pollutants, can penetrate deep into the lungs where they can cause inflammation and a worsening of the condition of people with heart and lung diseases. The World Health Organisation considers them a Group 1 carcinogen, proven to cause cancer in humans. These particulates can also cause bronchitis and are linked to birth defects.

There are nutraceuticals and medicinal herbs which support and strengthen lung function. Dr. Yik has helped numerous patients breathe easier in this polluted city of Hong Kong. If you are concerned about your health and would like to protect your respiratory system, discuss with your naturopathic doctor how you can support lung function and detoxification processes.



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Do vitamin E supplements prevent cancer, or promote it?

Do vitamin E supplements increase or decrease a person’s risk of developing cancer? It turns out that the answer lies in your genes. Genetic variation may increase the cancer risk in some individuals while decreasing the risk for others.

In a new study published in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute, researchers found that certain variations in a gene called “COMT” were responsible for vitamin E’s impact on the risk of cancer. This COMT gene encodes the production of an enzyme called “catechol-O-methyltransferase” (COMT), which influences the way in which a person’s body processes vitamin E. The COMT variant that researchers know the most about has three different variants comprising different alleles: met/met, val/met, and val/val.

The study found that women with the met/met variant of COMT who took vitamin E supplements had 14% lower cancer rates than women with the met/met allele who took a placebo.

At the same time, individuals with the val/val variant of COMT who took vitamin E supplements had 15% higher cancer rates compared with participants with the same genetic variant who took a placebo.

Dr. Yik is seeing more and more people interested in genetic testing. Sometimes it’s needed to rule out certain gene defects (click here to read about MTHFR gene testing for fertility and other health concerns). Sometimes it’s requested just out of curiosity. This study shows how genetic variation can determine of the benefits and possible harms of dietary supplements.



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Bon Voyage! Tips on how to stay healthy while traveling.

Traveling this holiday season? Or just a frequent flyer? The following tips will help you stay healthy while you are away from home:

1.Probiotics can prevent traveler’s diarrhoea! Many studies show that probiotics are able to effectively prevent traveler’s diarrhoea. The particular formula is a mixture of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum along with the probiotic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii. If you want to protect yourself from digestive/ intestinal illness, take a probiotic supplement containing the above strains. Taking a probiotic can also support your immune system and help with regular bowel movements.

2. Keep hydrated by drinking adequate amounts of water throughout your trip. Minimize caffeinated or alcoholic beverages as they are dehydrating.

3. Stock up on antioxidant supplements, glutathione in particular if you are flying. Glutathione is a vital antioxidant involved in protecting the body from free radical damage and helps to “recycle” other important antioxidants. Flying exposes us to more radiation (long-term exposure of which could increase risk of cancers and degenerative diseases) as we are at a higher altitude. A paper from the American Journal of Epidemiology found a higher incidence of acute myeloid leukemia among 2740 Air Canada pilots compared with the general population. The paper concluded that “monitoring of in-flight radiation exposure and long-term follow-up of civil aviation crew members is needed to further assess cancer incidence and leukemia risk in this special occupational group” (Am J Epidemiol 1996;143:137–43). Reduce the harmful effects of radiation (and stress!) while flying by ensuring adequate antioxidant support.

4. Airline “snack boxes” available on shorter flights are usually high in fat and/or sodium and filled with refined carbohydrates. Try to eat a healthier meal before a short flight to avoid hunger on the plane. If you do get hungry, check out #5. Remember to keep hydrated.

5. Healthy snack alternatives you can pack for your flight:

  • nuts or pre-made trail mix
  • fresh fruits like apples, oranges, avocado, etc.
  • carrot or celery sticks
  • dried or freeze-dried fruit and vegetables e.g. dried mango, okra chips, freeze-dried strawberries, etc.
  • homemade meat jerky
  • snack bars such as Larabar, Made Good, etc.

6. For long-haul flights, noodle soup cups are very popular “mini-meals”. Unfortunately, these are laden with MSG and other additives, and carry next-to-zero nutritional value. Usually, flights will offer a veggie sandwich alternative which is a healthier choice. If you must have the noodle soup cups, try to avoid the high-sodium and high-MSG broth.

7. Wear loose clothing and stretch regularly when flying. Stretch your legs/ feet and get up for regular walks to reduce the risk of forming blood clots.



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How to protect your memory and brain health

Whether you want to sharpen your memory or prevent cognitive decline, the following tips will help keep your brain healthy and functioning optimally:

  1. Challenge your brain. Work, read, do a crossword puzzle or solve Sudoku. Play bridge or mahjong with a group, or challenge a friend to a game of chess. If you are on your own, try digital puzzle games such as Two Dots or Bubble Game. You can also try memorizing key phone numbers instead of relying on your cell phone all the time.
  2. Get enough sleep! Sleep plays a vital role in brain function and helps you consolidate your memories. Aim to get at least 7 hours of sleep each night. If you have trouble falling asleep or wake up in the middle of the night, seek a healthcare practitioner who will address the cause and not just give you a quick fix. Sleeping pills can compromise cognitive function. Click here to read more on how to get a good night’s rest.
  3. Exercise regularly. According to Heidi Godman, Executive Editor of Harvard Health Letter, “exercise changes the brain in ways that protect memory and thinking skills.” According to a study done at the University of British Columbia, regular aerobic exercise appears to boost the size of the hippocampus, the brain area involved in verbal memory and learning. Interestingly, resistance training, balance and muscle toning exercises did not yield the same results. “… Engaging in a program of regular exercise of moderate intensity over six months or a year is associated with an increase in the volume of selected brain regions,” says Dr. Scott McGinnis, a neurologist at Brigham and Women’s Hospital and an instructor in neurology at Harvard Medical School. Regular exercise can reduce insulin resistance as well as inflammation, both of which have been linked to dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. Staying active also improves mood and sleep while reducing stress and anxiety. Problems in these areas commonly cause or contribute to cognitive impairment.
  4. Invest in healthy relationships and stay connected. Look for opportunities to gather with loved ones and friends, especially if you live alone.
    Loneliness is tied to an increased risk of developing dementia. In a recent study of 12,030 older adults, the researchers found that loneliness (how lonely one felt, rather than the amount of social contact with others) was associated with a 40% higher risk of developing dementia. A person can be surrounded by people and have many social contacts but still feel lonely.
  5. If you are experiencing memory loss, mental decline or cognitive impairment, find a healthcare practitioner who will work with you in addressing your concerns. According to Dr. Dale Bredesen, professor of neurology at University of California, Los Angeles, Alzheimer’s disease is a result of what happens when the brain tries to protect itself from inflammation (from infection, diet, stress, etc), a shortage or decline of supportive nutrients and hormones and/ or toxic substances such as metals or moulds. attractive beautiful beauty black and whiteHe suggests testing for insulin resistance, certain nutrient deficiencies, inflammation, heavy metal toxicity, food sensitivities/ intolerances and genetic status particularly for APO E4*, all of which are risk factors for Alzheimer’s disease. Dr. Bredesen believes that by correcting and rebalancing these factors, the cognitive decline of early Alzheimer’s can be prevented and even reversed in some cases. Dr. Ardyce Yik offers such testing in her clinic.

*Genetics may affect your risk for Alzheimer’s disease but it doesn’t mean you will necessarily have the condition. Increasing evidence is showing that environmental and lifestyle factors (i.e. epigenetic changes) can affect whether that gene is turned “on” or “off”. You are in control of your own fate much more than you realize.


Bredesen, D. (2017) The End of Alzheimer’s: The First Programme to Prevent and Reverse the Cognitive Decline of Dementia. UK: Penguin Random House.

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How much alcohol is too much?

Alcohol is one of the most widely used recreational drugs in the world. Do you drink? You may be a social drinker or you may drink every day. Perhaps you drink a glass of wine once a month or you finish a whole bottle in one evening. But have you ever stopped and wondered, how much alcohol is too much?

A recent worldwide study of alcohol use and its impact on our health concludes that the safest level of alcohol consumption is none. According to the researchers of the study, published in the journal The Lancet last month, there is no safe level of alcohol consumption. Any protective health effects of alcohol are offset by the risks.

In fact, this comprehensive study notes that in 2016, alcohol use was the main cause of death and disability for people aged 15 to 49, accounting for 12 percent of deaths in men of that age. It was also the 7th leading risk factor for early death.

Many of us are aware that drinking alcohol in high doses can lead to acute harm (e.g. accidents or violence to oneself or others), intoxication, cardiac arrhythmia, heart failure and even death. But what about moderate drinking, i.e. one drink a day for women and two for men? Well, it turns out that long term use (cumulative consumption) of alcohol increases the risk of a wide range of illnesses, including:

  • high blood pressure
  • obesity
  • stroke
  • breast cancer, liver cancer, colorectal cancer as well as cancers of the mouth and throat
  • depression (which may lead to suicide)
  • gastritis, gastric ulcers
  • liver cirrhosis
  • alcoholism, alcohol addiction

Excessive alcohol use is also associated with a variety of serious social issues, including domestic violence, child neglect/ abuse and absenteeism in the workplace.

So, now what? What does this study have to do with me?

Well, that depends.

If you drink fairly infrequently, once in a while at social gatherings, on your birthday or Christmas, then these findings may not be relevant to you, as the study focuses more on people who drink at least one drink once a day. If you choose to drink alcohol, know the risks and drink responsibly.

If you have one or more drinks every day, take heed. The risk of illness increases rapidly the more you drink. For people who consume 2 drinks a day, the risk of developing one of the 23 alcohol-related health problems increases by 7% over one year. For those who drink 5 drinks a day, the risk increases by 37% over one year.


Dr. Yik has seen her share of patients struggling with alcoholism- teenagers, professionals, fathers, mothers… Yes, even mothers! Healthcare professionals and addiction counsellors are seeing an increase in mothers seeking help for alcohol problems. This may be due to the current mommy drinking culture, which is vehemently reinforced by social media and advertising.

Seek a trusted doctor if you suspect you have a drinking problem. Symptoms include a strong, often uncontrollable, desire to drink, the urge to drink when feeling stressed or anxious, the need to drink more to achieve the same effects and/ or becoming more irritable and tired while being intoxicated more frequently.

If you do not drink alcohol, the advice from the researchers (as well as the American Heart Association) is clear: do NOT start drinking.



Glaser, Gabrielle. Her Best Kept Secret: Why Women Drink- and How They Can Regain Control. 

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